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I will definitely digg it and personally recommend to my friends. Is anyone else having this issue or is it a issue on my end? Aw, this was an exceptionally good post. Thanks a lot! Not Applicable H5 Headings: Not Applicable H6 Headings: Not Applicable Total Images: Not Applicable Google Analytics: Tue, 12 Apr Domain Registrar: Host IP Address Country ns1. Alexa Traffic Rank. Alexa Search Engine Traffic. Whois Server Version 2. Go to http: Domain Name: COM Registrar: COM Name Server: COM Status: Information to be Submitted by the Contractor Where the Contractor wishes to submit results of tests previously carried out on materials for chemical resistant mortar, those results shall be submitted with certificates from the independent testing laboratories used.

The Contractor shall arrange to have samples of chemical resistant resin mortar tested by a laboratory approved by the Employer's Representative and suitability for the purpose of compliance with this Specification shall be established to the satisfaction of the Employer's Representative before any such product is used in the Works. Further samples shall be taken during the period of application at the rate of one sample for every 1, kg of mortar delivered for use and tested by any or all of the procedures necessary to establish compliance with this Specification, as required by the Employer's Representative.

If any sample fails to comply, application shall cease until suitability and compliance with the Specification has been re- established to the satisfaction of the Employer's Representative. Any samples of chemical-resistant resin mortars submitted by the Contractor for the approval of the Employer's Representative shall be accompanied by a complete set of the literature issued by the manufacturer describing their product.

In addition to the manufacturer's standard data sheets, details of other installations where the mortar has been used, and any references as to its suitability should be included. Material and Properties Description The chemical resistant mortar shall be an intimate mixture of liquid resinous material and a setting agent and may contain appropriately selected filler materials. When mixed, these components shall form a mortar with a workability suitable for the proposed method of application that subsequently hardens. The liquid resin shall be any solvent-free resinous material capable of forming a chemical resistant mortar when mixed with a suitable catalyst and if required, a filler material.

The filler material, if used, shall be compatible with the liquid resin, of the chemical resistance required and of a size that will permit the preparation of a minimum joint thickness of 3. The mixed mortar shall not adversely affect or be affected by other construction materials with which it will properly come into contact, including fixtures and fittings.

The colours of individual components of the mortar shall be sufficiently different from each other so that complete homogeneous mixing of the components will be apparent by visual inspection. The colour of the completely mixed chemical resistant resin mortar shall be appreciably different from that of the bricks and tiles to be pointed. The pot life of the mortar shall be considered exceeded when the mortar can no longer be applied to a prepared surface without curling behind the trowel according to DIN. If it is proposed, subject to the approval of the Employer's Representative, to apply the mortar by some other method e.

Mortar applied at any time during the pot life shall have the specified properties when cured. This bond strength shall be achieved regardless of whether the mortar is applied to a dry, a damp or wet surface without priming or other form of surface preparation. The bond strength shall be tested and measured in accordance with ASTM C using samples of the actual construction materials. The cured mortar shall be capable of resisting attack by any constituents that may normally or occasionally be present in the wastewater, or which may form within the system by a combination of physical, chemical and biological reactions.

The maximum changes in weight, compressive strength and bond strength shall be measured after 7, 28, 56 and 84 days. The results of the tests, for petrol and each acid concentration and temperature shall be plotted on a graph, against time elapsed and submitted for approval by the Employer's Representative. While discoloration and loss of gloss on the surface of these tested specimens is acceptable, there shall be no surface cracks, etching, pitting or softening of the exposed surface.

If the test solution becomes discoloured during the test, the test shall be continued with fresh solution and there shall be no further discoloration. The mortar shall have a shrinkage not exceeding 0. The cured mortar shall have an absorption not exceeding 3. The cured chemical-resistant resin mortar shall have properties of shrinkage and thermal expansion such as to be able to withstand those tests prescribed in ASTM C Testing Requirements for testing of the chemical resistant resin mortar are described in the previous sub-clause.

For convenience, those tests are summarised below, giving the relevant ASTM standards, in accordance to which the tests have to be carried out. For resistance to chemicals: Testing shall be carried out subsequently at the rate of one set of tests per 1, kg of mortar delivered to Site. Storage and Application The individual components of the chemical resistant resin mortar shall be supplied in pre-measured quantities and packaged by the manufacturer in units sized to suit the method of application. Under no circumstances shall these quantities be divided to mix smaller batches. All packages shall be clearly marked as to size, contents, mixing instructions, safety precautions, storage requirements and date of expiration of the contents.

The manufacturer's recommendations for storage of the individual components of the mortar shall be followed. In all cases, storage shall be in a dry, cool place with containers tightly sealed and away from open flame. Components that have exceeded their shelf life or have become wet shall no be used.

The manufacturer's recommendations for the safe use of the mortar shall be followed. Workers shall wear gloves when handling the product. In the mixing and working areas there shall be no open flame and adequate ventilation shall be provided. Mixing of the mortar shall be in strict accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Mixing shall be thorough and complete such that the mortar is a homogeneous colour and free from lumps and air bubbles. In no case shall unspecified materials such as sand, cement or water be added to the mix. In no case shall mixed mortar that has become unworkable be retempered with resin liquid or by any other means.

Once mortar has become unworkable, it shall be discarded. The manufacturer's recommendations for surface preparation and for application and spreading of the mortar shall be followed. The joints shall be completely raked out to a depth of 25 mm. The surfaces to which the mortar is applied shall be free from dirt, debris, grease, oil and other materials that would prevent the formation of a sound bond. Where surfaces are damp or wet, such special measures as are recommended by the manufacturer for these conditions shall be adopted. The joints shall be carefully inspected by the Contractor prior to mortar application.

A smooth, even surface shall be achieved, flush with the surface of the blocks or tiles. The manufacturer's recommendations for curing the mortar shall be followed. Special consideration shall be given to curing in damp or wet conditions. Material excavated out of the road bed which is suitable for use in fill, shall be used for filling as far as this is practicable. All material shall be placed, spread evenly and compacted; spreading shall be undertaken concurrently with placing.

The material shall be spread in one or more layers so that after compaction the total thickness is as required. Where compacting plant is of insufficient capacity, the sub-base shall be laid in two or more layers. During the construction period the sub-base shall be maintained in such a condition that it will be drained at all times.

The outflow shall be diverted away from the construction at all times. The outflow shall be diverted away from the construction in order to prevent erosion. The sub-grade shall be kept drained. All damage caused by water where the sub-grade cannot be compacted to the required density, shall be removed and repaired. Sub-grade shall be cleaned of all foreign matter, pot-holes, loose material, ruts, corrugations, depressions or any other defect.

The Contractor shall rectify, scarify, water, grade and re-compact the sub-grade to the level at his own expense and all to the satisfaction of the engineer. No surfacing shall be done until the sub-grade has been inspected and approved by the Engineer. The number of passes to be made will be determined having regard to the characteristics of the plant to be employed and the material to be used. If necessary, test specimens shall be taken to determine the optimum method of compaction. The surface of any layer of material shall, on completion of compaction, be well closed, free from movement under compaction plant and free from compaction planes.

All loose, segregated or otherwise defective areas shall be made good to the thickness of the layer and re-compacted. The maximum compacted thickness of any layer shall be 25 cm. The sub-grade layers shall be compacted from slope stake to slope stake at the optimum moisture content. The layer shall be scarified and water shall be mixed in or the material allowed to dry out to the correct moisture content.

The layer shall then be compacted. The final surface shall be graded to level. Where shown on the drawings or directed by the Engineer, the formation shall be completed without the addition of any wearing course, sub-base, base or shoulders. The Contractor shall finish the sub-grade by grading watering and compacting with four passes of a 12 Mg smooth-wheeled roller. Irregularities shall not be allowed over 12 mm when measured from a 3 meter long straight board.

Base coarse is the top surfacing coarse which supports traffic and it is the coarse immediately below the surface dressing. The minimum thickness shall be mm after proper compaction. The selected gravel or crushed stone base shall be minimum mm or as required by the existing ground conditions. If the thickness of the base course is required to be more than mm, the material will be then laid and processed in two or more layers. The materials to be used shall be from a source proposed by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer.

It shall be non plastic. The maximum size shall not exceed 60 mm. The materials shall consist of sand gravel mixture or sand and crushed stone. The base material shall be a well graded material complying with the following requirements: Compaction shall take place by watering and rolling until there is no longer any visible movements of the compacted stone material and a stone of the base material when thrown under the roller shall become crushed. A finishing layer of sand shall be rolled in to fill the surface voids. The cement stabilised selected gravel base shall be minimum mm or as required by the existing ground conditions.

If the conditions on site allows it and the Engineer approves, the cement stabilised gravel base may be constructed on site by using rotary tillers and water bowsers to obtain a well mixed base. The compaction requirement remains unchanged, i. The material shall be placed and spread evenly, spreading shall be undertaken concurrently with placing. Road base material shall preferably be spread in one layer using a paying machine or similar approved. The material shall be spread so that after compaction the total thickness is as required.

The Contractor shall organise the work in such a way that longitudinal joints against hardened material are avoided as far as possible. If this is not possible then before work proceeds against a longitudinal joint of hardened material, the edge compacted previously shall, if it has been exposed for more than an hour, be cut back vertically to produce a face equivalent to the specified thickness of the layer of properly compacted material.

Compaction equipment shall not bear directly on hardened or partially hardened material previously laid other than what is necessary for achieving the specified compaction of the joint. Special care shall be taken to obtain full compaction in the vicinity of both longitudinal and transverse joints, and the Contractor shall use special small compactors in addition if necessary or instructed by the Engineer. Any loose or poorly compacted material in the vicinity of construction joints shall be removed and replaced with fresh material.

The surface of any layer of material shall on completion of compaction be well closed, free from movement under compaction plant and free from compaction planes, ridges, cracks or loose material. All loose, segregated or otherwise defective areas shall be made good to the full thickness of the layer and re-compacted. If this cannot be done within 2 hours of mixing, the making good shall comprise the material being broken out to the full thickness of the layer, removed and replaced with freshly mixed material compacted to Specification.

The base shall, immediately on completion or completion, be cured for a period of at least 7 days, unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. Curing shall be achieved either by covering with approved impermeable plastic sheeting adequately secured from being blown off the surface with joints overlapped at least mm and set to prevent egress of moisture or in accordance with Clauses in the Specification dealing with concrete or by spraying with an approved curing compound. Notwithstanding the above the Contractor shall construct the road base in accordance with the requirements and specification of the relevant Authority or Municipality.

The Specification included herein shall be adopted only in the absence of any particular requirements from these authorities. The surface shall be maintained by the Contractor until the Certificate of Completion is issued. Material and Construction a A bituminous tack coat shall be applied on the cleaned drained and levelled base coarse. Exact amount to be ordered by the Engineer. The surface course shall be constructed in two courses to depth established by the Engineer and each course shall be rolled finished and approved before placement of the next course.

The aggregate fractions shall be sized uniformly graded and combined in such proportions that the resulting mixture meets the grading requirements of the job mix formula. The gradations of the materials shall produce a relatively smooth curve when plotted in a semi-logarithmic gradation chart. When filler is necessary, it shall consist of stone dust, Portland cement or other approved materials.

The asphalt cement will be grades. The accepted job mix formula shall then not be changed. The final gradations shall not vary from the low limit to one sieve to the high limit on the adjacent sieves or vice versa. The selection of any gradation shall be such that the maximum size aggregate used shall not be more than one half of the thickness of the layer of the surface course being constructed h The bituminous content of the mixture shall be calculated on the percentage basis by weight of the total mix. The mineral aggregate and asphalt shall be combined to meet the following gradations.

When introduced into the mixture the combined aggregate shall not contain more than 0. Water in the aggregate shall be removed by heating to the extent that there is no subsequent forming in the mixture. The maximum temperature and rate of heating shall be such that no permanent damage occurs to the aggregates.

Particular care shall be taken that aggregates high in calcium or magnesium content are not damaged by heating. The aggregates shall be screened to specified sizes and conveyed into separate bins ready for mixing with bituminous material. The quantity of each aggregate shall be measured and conveyed into the mixer. The aggregates shall be mixed with the bituminous material at the central mixing plant. The mixture shall be prepared at the temperature specified. The Engineer may accept lower temperatures. The temperatures shall be maintained throughout the spreading operation.

The mixture shall be laid only upon cleaned dry and approved underlying course. It shall be struck off in a uniform layer such that when the work is completed will have the required thickness. The speed of the roller shall at all times be slow to avoid displacement of the hot mixture. Any displacement occurring as a result of reversing the direction of the roller or from any cause shall be corrected at once by rakes and fresh mixture.


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Asphalt Overlay Pavements The asphalt overlay pavements comprise: The asphalt concrete course shall be the coarser and the wearing course of the finest grading. Hot-Mix Asphalt Bituminous The bituminous mixture for the surface courses shall conform to the requirements of locally produced mixtures. The composition of the mixtures is generally as follows: Bituminous mixtures shall be, as far as practicable, obtained from an approved local mixing plant. Contact details of local producers sub-contractors will be given by the Engineer. No bituminous mixture shall be manufactured until a job-mix formula has been submitted by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer in writing.

The formula shall indicate the exact percentage of each sieve fraction and the exact percentage of asphalt to be used in the mixtures, including the mix temperature. The job-mix formula shall be within the master range as specified and shall be in effect until modified in writing by the Engineer. Weather Limitations Bituminous courses shall be constructed only when the base is dry and when the weather is not rainy.

Preparation Immediately before applying a bituminous pavement, the surface of the base course shall be thoroughly cleaned of all loose or foreign material. The base layer shall be coated with a tack-coat of the liquid asphalt rapid curing type. The tack-coat composition shall be approved by the Engineer's before starting the works. The tack-coat shall be applied just sufficiently in advance of the placement of the asphalt concrete mixture so as to provide a thin adhesive film of bituminous cement to ensure a good bond.

The tack-coat shall be uniformly applied by means of a pressure hand spray, in quantities of not less than 0. Stakes for alignment control shall be furnished, set and maintained by the Contractor, subject to checking and correction by the Engineer, in order that the Works shall conform to the lines shown on the drawings. The stakes shall be set in lines parallel with the centre line of the area to be paved, offset and spaced as directed by the Engineer. Transportation All bituminous mixtures shall be transported from the mixing plant to the spreader in trucks having tight, clean, smooth beds which have been oiled with a minimum amount of approved thin oil to prevent adhesion of the mixtures to the trucks.

Each load shall be covered with canvas, or other suitable material, to protect it from dust or rain, and to prevent the loss of heat. Deliveries shall be arranged so that spreading and rolling of all the mixtures prepared for a day's run can be completed during daylight, unless artificial light satisfactory to the Engineer is provided. Any loads excessively wet by rain will be rejected. Hauling over freshly laid material will not be permitted. Placing The asphalt pavement shall be constructed in accordance with the thickness as present prior to removal and excavation work or as shown on the drawings with a minimum as specified.

The spreader shall be adjusted and the speed regulated, so that the surface of the ill be smooth and of such depth that, when compacted, it will conform to the cross section shown on the drawings. The length of any lane laid before placing the adjacent lane shall be as directed by the Engineer. Where two spreading machines are operating in staggered position, no single lane shall be laid in advance of the adjoining lane further than will permit a satisfactory hot longitudinal joint between the lanes.

Where forming a hot longitudinal joint, the mm strip along the edge against which additional material is to be laid shall not be rolled until such additional material is placed, except when the work is to be discontinued.

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After the first lane has been placed and rolled, the adjacent lane shall be placed while the unrolled mm strip is hot and in readily compactable condition. Rolling of the adjacent lane shall begin along the joint. Placing of the mixture shall be as continuous as possible. In areas where the use of machine spreading is impractical, the mixture may be spread by hand and dressed with rakes. The loads shall not be dumped any faster than can be properly handled by the shovellers and rakers. Contact surfaces of previously constructed pavement kerbs, manholes and similar structures shall be painted with a thin tack-coat prior to placing the bituminous mixture.

Compaction of Mixtures Compaction shall be effected by three-wheel rollers and tandem rollers.